Computer networking is a mechanism whereby two or more connected computers share data and shared resources. Printer, Fax modem, hard disk, CD-DVD Rom, Database and data files can be included in the shared resources. A computer network may be divided into a small or local area network, a computer network in an office building (LAN), a medium-sized network (MAN), a network between two offices in a city and a Large Network (WAN), a network between computers, one locally and the other in every other country in the world.

Connectivity to the WAN is accomplished via a network computer known as “router.” The internet is the biggest WAN network in the world, where millions of computers from all over the globe link to each other.

Networking is the process of connecting two or more devices or computers to one another. The link can be either wireless or wired. There are different types of a computer network, as mentioned above, depending on the geographical area.

Types of Networking

There are two primary types of the client-server and peer-to-peer computer network. A computer which is a server may play a significant role in the computing of the client system. Where files, data are stored in the form of web pages, docs and spread sheet files, video, database & services.

The other computers in the client / server network are called clients, and the server receives the data. All the computers perform the same role in the peer to peer network, and no computer functions as a centralized server. The architecture of the client-server network is in great use in the big companies around the world.

A topology for a network describes a network structure, architecture, or layout. There are various topologies, such as the bus, triangle, circle, mesh, hybrid etc. The topology of stars is the most common topology for networks. In star topology, all Network computers are connected to a centralized system such as hub or switch. Thus it forms a structure like a star. If the hubs/switch are not working for any purpose then all access and contact between a network’s computers will be halted.

The computers and network devices use a common communication language in the network, and that language is known as protocols. TCP / IP is the most prevalent and popular internet protocol. TCP / IP is not a single protocol but is a multi-protocol suite.

A network can be wired or wireless, and the TCP / IP protocol can operate both in network forms.

Data Flow

In a computer network, we can divide a data flow into 7 logical layers. Which are called Layersmodel OSI. Intel and Xerox Corporation developed that, and ISO standardized that.

  1. Application layer
  2. Presentation layer
  3. Session layer
  4. Transport layer
  5. Network layer
  6. Data Link layer
    1. Media access control sub-layer
    2. Logical link control sub-layer
  7. Physical layer.

A network is divided into different scales and ranges, and depends on the network and geographic location requirements. Local Area Network may be computer network. Private Area Network, Campus Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network, Wireless Local Area Network, and Broad Area Network.

There are many types of network access, such as HomePNA, Power line communication, Ethernet, and Wifi connection. A network can be classified into many different groups, based on the services it provides such as Server farms. Networks for Storage Area, Quality Control Networks, Quality-Added Networks, SOHO Network, Wireless and Jungle Networks.


Source by Bushra Bashir

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